Primary Nutrients

Primary Nutrients are chemical compounds that are applied to promote plant growth. Typically, fertilizers are applied to the soil. To make plants grow faster, the soil needs to be supplemented with nutrients in readily available forms. Most fertilizers supply just Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium because other chemicals are needed in much lower quantities and are generally available in most soils. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium availability is the big limit to growth and these are called as Macro nutrients, which are more important to crops. They are classified as straight fertilizers, complex fertilizers and physical mixtures or granulated mixtures.

SPIC Neem Coated Urea (Indigenous)
PACKING: 45 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC Neem Coated Urea (Indigenous)

SPIC Neem Coated Urea (Indigenous)

SPIC NC UREA is a Synthetic organic compound containing 46 % Nitrogen in Amide form, which has to be converted into Nitrate form for easy absorption by plants since most of the field crops utilise Nitrogen only in Nitrate form. It has low biuret content of 0.3% as against the statutory maximum allowable level of 1.5% prescribed in FCO.

SPECIFICATION

S. No.   Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture per cent by weight maximum 1.000
2. Total nitrogen per cent by weight (on dry weight basis) minimum 46.000
3. Biuret per cent by weight maximum 1.500
4. Neem Oil Content Soluble in Benzene per cent by weight minimum 0.035
5. Particle size (Material shall be retained between 1mm and 2.8mm IS sieve minimum 80.000

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • SPIC NC UREA provides a rich source of nitrogen responsible for the green lush
  • A white solid uniform & high crushing strength prills with free-flowing for easy application
  • Can be applied to the soil. Also suitable in solution form for spray
  • Application is recommended in split doses for better use efficiency
  • Being Hygroscopic, it is packed in moisture proof High-Density Poly Ethylene bags

RECOMMENDATION

  • Suitable for all crops and all the stages based on the recommended dose of fertilizers
  • Paddy, Maize & Wheat: 80 - 120 kg/acre
  • Sugarcane, Cotton, Tobacco & Chillies: 120 – 150 kg/acre
SPIC Neem Coated Urea (Imported)
PACKING: 45 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC Neem Coated Urea (Imported)

SPIC Neem Coated Urea (Imported)

SPIC NC UREA is a Synthetic organic compound containing 46 % Nitrogen in Amide form, which has to be converted into Nitrate form for easy absorption by plants since most of the field crops utilise Nitrogen only in Nitrate form. It has low biuret content of 0.3% as against the statutory maximum allowable level of 1.5% prescribed in FCO.

SPECIFICATION

S. No.   Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture per cent by weight maximum 1.000
2. Total nitrogen per cent by weight (on dry weight basis) minimum 46.000
3. Biuret per cent by weight maximum 1.500
4. Neem Oil Content Soluble in Benzene per cent by weight minimum 0.035
5. Particle size (Material shall be retained between 1mm and 2.8mm IS sieve minimum 80.000

 

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • SPIC NC UREA provides a rich source of nitrogen responsible for the green lush
  • A white solid uniform & high crushing strength prills with free flowing for easy application
  • Can be applied to soil. Also suitable in solution form for spray
  • Application is recommended in split doses for better use efficiency
  • Being Hygroscopic, it is packed in moisture proof High-Density Poly Ethylene bags

RECOMMENDATION

  • Suitable for all crops and all the stages based on the recommended dose of fertilizers
  • Paddy, Maize & Wheat: 80 - 120 kg/acre
  • Sugarcane, Cotton, Tobacco & Chillies: 120 – 150 kg/acre
SPIC DAP (Indigenous)
PACKING: 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC DAP (Indigenous)

SPIC DAP (Indigenous)

Di-ammonium Phosphate popularly known as DAP is a preferred and most economical complex fertilizer in India because it is a highly concentrated fertilizer containing 64 percent nutrient (18% N, 46% P2O5).

SPECIFICATION

S. No. Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture percent by weight Maximum 2.5
2. Total Nitrogen (Ammoniacal and Urea) percent by weight Minimum 18.0
3. Ammoniacal Nitrogen form percent by weight Minimum 15.5
4. Available phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 46.0
5. Water soluble phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 39.5
6. Particle size (Material shall be retained between 1mm and 4mm IS sieve) Minimum 90.0

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • The Nitrogen present in DAP is in Ammoniacal form and is not lost in leaching. As the Phosphate is present in water-soluble form, it is immediately available to the crop
  • It helps in the early establishment of the plant root system, promotes vigorous crop growth, and thus ensures higher yield
  • Contains traces of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese, and molybdenum, and important plant nutrients such as sulphur, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen and phosphate
  • Unique black colour and uniform granule size

RECOMMENDATION

  • It is an ideal basal fertilizer for all crops and suits well as a starter fertilizer with the required P and available N
  • Paddy, Maize & Wheat: 80 - 100 kg /acre
  • Sugarcane, Cotton, Tobacco & Chillies: 120 – 150 kg/acre
SPIC DAP (Imported)
PACKING: 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC DAP (Imported)

SPIC DAP (Imported)

Di-ammonium Phosphate popularly known as DAP is a preferred and most economical complex fertilizer in India because it is a highly concentrated fertilizer containing 64 percent nutrient (18% N, 46% P2O5).

SPECIFICATION

S. No. Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture percent by weight Maximum 2.5
2. Total Nitrogen (Ammoniacal and Urea) percent by weight Minimum 18.0
3. Ammoniacal Nitrogen form percent by weight Minimum 15.5
4. Available phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 46.0
5. Water soluble phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 39.5
6. Particle size (Material shall be retained between 1mm and 4mm IS sieve) Minimum 90.0

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • The Nitrogen present in DAP is in Ammoniacal form and is not lost in leaching. As the Phosphate is present in water-soluble form, it is immediately available to the crop
  • It helps in the early establishment of the plant root system, promotes vigorous crop growth, and thus ensures higher yield
  • Contains traces of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese, and molybdenum, and important plant nutrients such as sulphur, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen and phosphate
  • Unique black colour and uniform granule size

RECOMMENDATION

  • It is an ideal basal fertilizer for all crops and suits well as a starter fertilizer with the required P and available N
  • Paddy, Maize & Wheat: 80 - 100 kg /acre
  • Sugarcane, Cotton, Tobacco & Chillies: 120 – 150 kg/acre
SPIC 20 20 0 13
PACKING: 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC 20 20 0 13

SPIC 20 20 0 13

20:20:0:13 is an Ammonium Phosphate Sulphate Fertilizer. Besides two macro-nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus), it provides Sulphur - a major secondary plant nutrient.

SPECIFICATION

S. No. Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture percent by weight Maximum 1.0
2. Total nitrogen (Ammoniacal + Urea) percent by weight Minimum 20.0
3. Ammoniacal nitrogen percent by weight Minimum 18.0
4. Available phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 20.0
5. Water soluble phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 17.0
6. Sulphate Sulphur (as S), percent by weight Minimum 13.0
7. Particle size (Material shall be retained between 1mm and 4mm IS sieve) Minimum 90.0

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • Used as complex fertilizer for the supply of 20% Nitrogen, 20% P2O5 and 13% Sulphur.
  • Suitable for all crops, both for basal application and top dressing
  • It improves the oil content in oil seed crops
  • Granules are uniform and light grey in colour, stronger, harder and of uniform size which facilitates easy application
  • Least hygroscopic and does not readily absorb moisture from the air.
  • Being non-hygroscopic, it has good storage properties and can be kept indefinitely without quality deterioration
  • Due to high water solubility, has greater mobility in the soil

RECOMMENDATION

  • 20:20:0:13 Complex fertilizer is highly suitable for all crops
  • Paddy, Sugarcane, Onion, Chilly & Wheat: 100 - 150 kg/ acre
  • Maize, Mustard and Peas: 80 - 100 kg/ acre
  • Potato: 200kg/ acre
SPIC 20 20 0 0 (Imported)
50 Kg. HDPE bags

SPIC 20 20 0 0 (Imported)

APPLICATION APPLICATION
  • Used as a complex fertilizer for supply of ‘N’ and ‘P2O5’ nutrients.
  • Suitable for all crops both for initial application and top dressing.
  • Granules are stronger, harder and of uniform size which facilitates easy application.

SPECIFICATION

Moisture percent by weight (Maximum) 1.5
Total Nitrogen percent by weight (Minimum) 20
Ammoniacal nitrogen percent by weight (Minimum) 6.5
Neutral Ammoniacal citrate soluble phosphorus (as P2O5) percent by weight (Minimum) 20
Water soluble Phosphorus (as P2O5) percent by weight (Minimum) 17
SPIC NPK 10 26 26 (Imported)
PACKING: 50 Kg. HDPE bags

SPIC NPK 10 26 26 (Imported)

SPIC NPK (10:26:26) is a complex fertilizer that contains 10% of Nitrogen, 26% of Phosphorous, and 26 % Potash which are easily and quickly available to plants.

SPECIFICATION

S. No. Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture percent by weight Maximum 1.5
2. Total nitrogen (Ammoniacal + Urea) percent by weight Minimum 10.0
3. Ammoniacal nitrogen percent by weight Minimum 7.0
4. Available phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 26.0
5. Water soluble phosphorus (as P205) percent by weight Minimum 22.5
6. Water soluble potassium (as K20), percent by weight Minimum 26.0
7. Particle size (Materials shall be retained between 1mm and 4mm IS sieve) Minimum 90.0

 

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • Used as a complex fertilizer for the supply of ‘N’, ‘P2O5’ & K2O nutrients
  • Contains Phosphorous and Potassium in a 1:1 ratio with Nitrogen, hence suitable for basal applications and top dressing
  • Granules are stronger, harder, and of uniform size which facilitates easy application
  • Least hygroscopic and does not readily absorb moisture from the air it has good storage properties, and can be kept indefinitely without quality deterioration
  • Due to high water solubility, has greater mobility in the soil

RECOMMENDATION

  • Field crops: 100 kg – 150 kg/ acre
  • Vegetables: 50 – 100 kg/ acre
SPIC Ammonia (Agricultural Grade)
PACKING: 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC Ammonia (Agricultural Grade)

SPIC Ammonia (Agricultural Grade)

Ammonium Chloride fertilizer is manufactured by M/s. Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd., and is marketed by Greenstar Fertilizer Ltd. Ammonium Chloride contains 25% Nitrogen. Besides nitrogen, Chlorine present in Ammonium Chloride improves root formation and ensures quality product output. The entire Nitrogen is present in Ammoniacal form. 

SPECIFICATION

S. No. Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture percent by weight Maximum 2.0
2. Ammoniacal nitrogen percent by weight, Minimum 25.0
3. Chloride other than ammonium chloride (as NaCI) percent by weight Maximum 2.0

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • Ammoniacal Nitrogen is not lost by leaching, since NH4+ is fixed by soil clay and humus complex. On application to the field, nitrogen will be released as and when the demand arises from the crop
  • When ammonium Chloride is applied as basal or top dressing for cultivated crops, loss of nitrogen is very less. Consequently more N will be utilized by the crop, thereby fertilizer use efficiency is increased. Ammonium Chloride fertilizer application is recommended for saline and alkaline soils
  • It is also a suitable Nitrogenous fertilizer for application in low-lying areas where paddy and other crops are cultivated by farmers. The chlorine present in Ammonium Chloride gives resistance to some pests and diseases
  • Ammonium Chloride is less hygroscopic than other fertilizers which means the fertilizer has a fairly long life in storage. The chloride radical in Ammonium Chloride frees Phosphorous, Potash, Magnesium, Silica, Iron etc. from the soil
  • Applying during the panicle initiation stage results in uniform maturity in paddy

RECOMMENDATION

  • 50kg/ acre for paddy and all crops
SPIC Super
GRANULATED & POWDER FORM (PACKING): 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC Super

SPIC Super

SSP is the most popular phosphatic fertilizer after DAP as it contains 3 major plant nutrients namely Phosphorus – 16 %, Sulphur and Calcium along with traces of many micro-nutrients.

SPECIFICATION

SL. No.

Composition

Content (%)

 

POWDERED

GRANULE

1.

Moisture percent by weight

Maximum

12.0

5.0

2.

Available phosphorus (as P2O5) per cent by weight

Minimum

16.0

16.0

3.

Water soluble phosphorus (as P2O5) per cent by weight

Minimum

14.5

14.5

4.

Sulphate Sulphur (as S) per cent by weight

Minimum

11.0

11.0

5.

Free phosphoric acid (as P2O5) per cent by weight

Maximum

4.0

4.0

6.

Particle size (Material shall be retained between 1mm and 4mm IS sieve)

Minimum

-

90.0

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • SSP helps to treat Sulphur deficiency in soils (40% of Indian soils are Sulphur deficient). Continuous application of SSP reclaims Alkali soils
  • Improves root formation and ensures absorption of nutrients thereby ensuring quality produce
  • SSP contains Calcium which is essential for continuous cell division and cell wall formation and ensures a healthy crop
  • SSP is the cheapest source of sulphur for the soil. Sulphur helps in chlorophyll formation which induces photosynthesis
  • It is widely used in most of the crops at the time of sowing as basal application
  • Sugarcane & Oilseed farmers have a special preference for SSP

RECOMMENDATION

  • 100 kg/ acre for all crops
  • 100 – 150 kg/ acre for paddy
  • 200 – 250 kg/ acre for sugarcane
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [17 17 17]
PACKING: 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [17 17 17]

SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [17 17 17]

Granulated Fertilizers are chemical fertilizers that are mixed in a proportion to attain specific grades and granulated through a granulator as approved by respective State Governments termed as Standard Mixtures.

SPECIFICATION

 

S. No.

 

Product

                     Nutrient

TN

KN

1.

17:17:17

N:17% P:17(3.4)% K:17%

N(T):17% P(T): 17% P(CS):17% P(WS):14.5 K:17%

2.

12:12:12

N:12% P:12% K:12%

-

3.

16:12:16

-

N(T):16% P(T):12% K:16%

4.

14:06:21

-

N(T):14% P(T):6% K:21%

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • These fertilizers are used as an alternative to straight and complex fertilizers to minimize the cost of application
  • Granulated fertilizers contain Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash in a balanced proportion
  • Granulated fertilizers can be used by the farmers very easily
  • They are suitable for all crops, both for basal application and top dressing

RECOMMENDATION

  • Cotton, Groundnut, Maize, Bajra & Ragi: 50 – 100 kg/ acre
  • Paddy & sugarcane: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
  • Short duration crops: 100 kg/ acre
  • Long duration crops: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [12 12 12]
PACKING: 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [12 12 12]

SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [12 12 12]

Granulated Fertilizers are chemical fertilizers that are mixed in a proportion to attain specific grades and granulated through a granulator as approved by respective State Governments termed as Standard Mixtures.

SPECIFICATION

 

S. No.

 

Product

                     Nutrient

TN

KN

1.

17:17:17

N:17% P:17(3.4)% K:17%

N(T):17% P(T): 17% P(CS):17% P(WS):14.5 K:17%

2.

12:12:12

N:12% P:12% K:12%

-

3.

16:12:16

-

N(T):16% P(T):12% K:16%

4.

14:06:21

-

N(T):14% P(T):6% K:21%

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • These fertilizers are used as an alternative to straight and complex fertilizers to minimize the cost of application
  • Granulated fertilizers contain Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash in a balanced proportion
  • Granulated fertilizers can be used by the farmers very easily
  • They are suitable for all crops, both for basal application and top dressing

RECOMMENDATION

  • Cotton, Groundnut, Maize, Bajra & Ragi: 50 – 100 kg/ acre
  • Paddy & sugarcane: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
  • Short duration crops: 100 kg/ acre
  • Long duration crops: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [16:12:16]
50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [16:12:16]

SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [16:12:16]

Description

Granulated Fertilizers are chemical fertilizers that are mixed in a proportion to attain specific grades and granulated through a granulator as approved by respective State Governments termed as Standard Mixtures.

SPECIFICATION

 

S. No.

 

Product

                     Nutrient

TN

KN

1.

17:17:17

N:17% P:17(3.4)% K:17%

N(T):17% P(T): 17% P(CS):17% P(WS):14.5 K:17%

2.

12:12:12

N:12% P:12% K:12%

-

3.

16:12:16

-

N(T):16% P(T):12% K:16%

4.

14:06:21

-

N(T):14% P(T):6% K:21%

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • These fertilizers are used as an alternative to straight and complex fertilizers to minimize the cost of application
  • Granulated fertilizers contain Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash in a balanced proportion
  • Granulated fertilizers can be used by the farmers very easily
  • They are suitable for all crops, both for basal application and top dressing.

RECOMMENDATION

  • Cotton, Groundnut, Maize, Bajra & Ragi: 50 – 100 kg/ acre
  • Paddy & sugarcane: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
  • Short duration crops: 100 kg/ acre
  • Long duration crops: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [14:06:21]
50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [14:06:21]

SPIC NPK Granulated Fertilizers [14:06:21]

Description

Granulated Fertilizers are chemical fertilizers that are mixed in a proportion to attain specific grades and granulated through a granulator as approved by respective State Governments termed as Standard Mixtures.

SPECIFICATION

 

S. No.

 

Product

                     Nutrient

TN

KN

1.

17:17:17

N:17% P:17(3.4)% K:17%

N(T):17% P(T): 17% P(CS):17% P(WS):14.5 K:17%

2.

12:12:12

N:12% P:12% K:12%

-

3.

16:12:16

-

N(T):16% P(T):12% K:16%

4.

14:06:21

-

N(T):14% P(T):6% K:21%

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • These fertilizers are used as an alternative to straight and complex fertilizers to minimize the cost of application
  • Granulated fertilizers contain Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash in a balanced proportion
  • Granulated fertilizers can be used by the farmers very easily
  • They are suitable for all crops, both for basal application and top dressing.

RECOMMENDATION

  • Cotton, Groundnut, Maize, Bajra & Ragi: 50 – 100 kg/ acre
  • Paddy & sugarcane: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
  • Short duration crops: 100 kg/ acre
  • Long duration crops: 150 – 200 kg/ acre
SPIC Rock Phosphate (Imported)
Packing – 50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC Rock Phosphate (Imported)

SPIC Rock Phosphate (Imported)

Description

SPIC ROCK PHOSPHATE is an organic source of Phosphorus. It is a sedimentary rock that contains 18% of phosphorus.

SPECIFICATION

Composition

Content (%)

 

Total Phosphorus (as P2O5) percent by weight

 

 

Minimum

 

18.0

 

Particle size - Minimum 90 percent of the material shall pass through a 0.15 mm IS sieve and the balance 10 percent of material shall pass through a 0.25 mm IS sieve

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • Highly recommended for the hilly regions (Acid soils) and high rainfall zone crops as a ‘Phosphorus’ source
  • It is environmental friendly
  • In addition to increasing soil phosphorus, it adds other nutrients to the soil like exchangeable calcium and magnesium cations & it also increases carbon accumulation which in turn improves soil quality
  • Improves root growth and yield
  • Prolonged availability of Phosphorus to the plants.

RECOMMENDATION

  • Tree crops: 1 kg/ Tree
  • Plantation crops: 150 kg/ acre.
SPIC Posh
Packing – 10 kg & 25 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC Posh

SPIC Posh

Description

It is a unique source of plant nutrition containing three essential nutrients that are naturally combined into one mineral. It provides readily available forms of Potassium, Magnesium and Sulphur to growing plants in an ideal ratio.

SPECIFICATION

S. No. Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture percent by weight Maximum 1.5%
2. Water soluble potassium (as K2O) percent by weight Minimum 23%
3. Magnesium (as MgO) percent by weight Maximum 11%
4. Sodium (as Nacl) percent by weight Maximum 1.5%

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • Promotes a healthy root system and gives resistance to pests and Diseases
  • SPIC POSH is suitable for all soil types as it is alkaline - acid neutral (pH)                        
  • It is suitable for all types of crops as it does not contain chlorine salt. Suitable for chlorine-susceptible crops such as banana, coconut, grapes, potatoes, sunflower, sugarcane, tobacco, woody crops and all Solanaceae family crops.

RECOMMENDATION

  • Foliar spray: 5 gm/ lit at 15 days interval during flowering and fruiting stage
  • Soil application: 50 kg/ acre for all crops.
SPIC Potasse
50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC Potasse

SPIC Potasse

Description

SPIC POTASSE is a K - rich organic manure derived from molasses, best known for its multiple eco-friendly benefits. It is also a very efficient Potassium source as the Potash in it lasts longer.

SPECIFICATION

S. No. Composition Content (%)
1. Moisture percent by weight Maximum 5.0%
2. Water soluble Potash (as K2O) percent by weight Minimum 14.5%

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • SPIC POTASSE is a bi-product derived from Molasses and contains 14.5% K2O
  • Suitable for all types of crops
  • Acts as an excellent soil conditioner and improves the physical structure of the soil
  • It improves soil aeration, water retention capacity and prevents leaching losses
  • Significantly increases yield, growth parameters and market quality of the produce
  • Enriches soil tilth with Potash and induces disease resistance
  • Ensures supply of available Potash for a long time in the soil.

RECOMMENDATION

  • 100 – 200 kg/ acre for all crops
  • Tree crops: 5 – 10kg/ tree.
SPIC SOP SG
50 kg HDPE Bag
SPIC SOP SG

SPIC SOP SG

Description

SPIC SOP SG is a granular grade of sulphate of potash that helps growers to produce high-quality crops. It contains 50% of Potassium and 17.5% of Sulphur.

SPECIFICATION

Composition

Content (%)

Moisture percent by weight

Maximum

1.5

Water soluble potassium (as K2O) percent by weight

Minimum

50.0

Sulphate Sulphur (as S) percent by weight

Minimum

17.5

Sodium as NaCl percent by weight

Maximum

2.0

Total Chlorides (as Cl) percent by weight

Maximum

2.5

Features

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • SPIC SOP SG improves the yield and quality of fruit and vegetables
  • Enhances the nutritional value of the produce
  • Improves plant resistance to pests, diseases and environmental stress
  • Excellent yield booster
  • Sulphur plays a major role in the synthesis of proteins and enzymes
  • Acts as a catalyst for various physiological activities of plants.

RECOMMENDATION

  • 50 kg/acre for all horticulture crops at the time of fruit/sugar formation.
  • 25 kg /acre for vegetables.
Navigating the COVID-19 crisis: Our employees’ stories
Navigating the COVID-19 crisis: Our employees’ stories